The Qinghai Tibet Plateau cryosphere observation and research station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is located in Golmud City, Qinghai Province, formerly known as the comprehensive observation and research station of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the construction of the Qinghai Tibet railway, since 2001, the Qinghai Tibet Railway permafrost engineering observation and research base has been established near the Northern Piedmont of the plateau to carry out the monitoring and research of the railway frozen soil engineering. The observation and research area of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau cryosphere observation and experimental research station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is located in the hinterland of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The observation sites are mainly distributed on both sides of the Qinghai Tibet highway and the Qinghai Tibet railway. The distribution area of the cryosphere along the meridional direction across the main body of the plateau is the only field observation and research station located in the hinterland of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
The Golmud base of the plateau cryosphere station
The cryosphere of Qinghai Tibet Plateau is an area with underdeveloped social economy and extremely fragile ecological environment in China. The contradiction between socio-economic development and degradation of water resources and ecological environment is extremely prominent. Many studies have shown that due to climate change, the glaciers on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau have been in a state of overall retreat since the little ice age, and have been accelerated in the near future. Climate prediction shows that the temperature is still warming in this century. It is self-evident that under the background of regional continuous warming, glacier retreat and frozen soil degradation are bound to intensify, which will directly affect the changes of river water resources and ecological environment in China, and then endanger the sustainable development of the plateau and even China's social economy.
The cryosphere special environment and disaster research station undertakes the long-term positioning monitoring and research tasks of the dynamic change process of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau cryosphere and the basic characteristics and evolution process related to the plateau cryosphere, such as climate, hydrology, ecology, cold region engineering, etc.; to obtain systematic high-quality monitoring data; to improve the construction of database and basic service facilities; to study the land surface process of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau cryosphere It provides an open field observation and test platform for the study of ecological and hydrological processes in cold regions, engineering frost damage and snow and ice disaster research, provides demonstration and experimental bases for subgrade construction of frozen soil road engineering, provides scientific basis for the protection and rational utilization of ecological environment and water resources and the prevention and control of freezing damage in construction projects in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and provides practice and training for relevant research personnel Finally, it serves the regional and national economic development.
In 1960, the first permafrost monitoring station was established in Fenghuoshan area along the Qinghai Tibet highway by Lanzhou Institute of glaciation and permafrost research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. From 1963 to 1964, the permafrost observation was carried out in Tumen, Tibet, at an altitude of 4950 m at the southern foot of Tanggula Mountain on the Qinghai Tibet plateau for nearly two years. In the following 20 years, the permafrost monitoring station was established in the Fenghuoshan area along the Qinghai Tibet highway Several short-term and irregular permafrost temperature and meteorological observations have been carried out along the highway. In 1987, the Chinese Academy of Sciences officially approved the establishment of a comprehensive observation and research station on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau jointly by the former Lanzhou Institute of glaciers and permafrost and the Lanzhou Institute of Atmospheric Physics, which was integrated into the Institute of environment and Engineering in cold and arid regions of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2000. After 1995, with the deepening of research on cryosphere and permafrost road engineering, the observation sites and observation contents of the station have been further expanded, and the current three points and three lines (three points: Geermu comprehensive base, Beiluhe permafrost engineering test base and Naqu andoneng water balance test base; three lines: Qinghai Tibet highway / railway, Qingkang highway and Xinzang) Along the highway) is the observation and research area, with the cryosphere and cold area engineering as the main monitoring and research content.
The plateau cryosphere station takes the dynamic change of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau cryosphere as the main subject direction, carries out long-term monitoring and testing of the dynamic change process of the cryosphere and its related factors under natural and man-made conditions, carries out the research on the dynamic change process and mechanism of the cryosphere under the influence of natural and man-made conditions, and explores the interaction between the plateau cryosphere and climate, environment, human economy and engineering activities Using the mechanism and the law of coordinated development. It provides basic data platform for the study of plateau cryosphere, climate environment, ecological environment and hydrology and water resources in cold regions, and provides decision-making basis for regional economic development.